In this world, there are accounting standards and accounting practitioners first; then there is an accounting system, which integrates business and finance; the consumer email list system does not change the theoretical basis and norms of finance, but only changes the realization form and efficiency of finance. Offline things get online.
1. Accounting identities and variants
I believe that the first sentence that all accountant preachers send you is "There is a debit, there is a loan, and the debit is equal", so why? First of all, we need to know that this sentence is in the framework of the "double-entry bookkeeping method":
1.1 The concept of lending
Borrowing is just a bookkeeping symbol, similar to "income/expense", "inflow/outflow", and "in/out of money"; it's just that the twin brothers of borrowing are a little crazy, and everyone else has a clear love and hate.
As for them, there is no clear correspondence between consumer email list additions and subtractions, and they are a little bit like people talking and talking nonsense. It is simply multiple personalities, and the addition and subtraction are uncertain; but we just need to remember that they are the direction symbols of the account flow.
Loan usage: just like income and expenditure, it is used to define the direction of account flow, and this direction determines whether consumer email list the balance of the account to be processed by reconciliation increases or decreases;
Where there is borrowing, there must be lending: This sentence shows that they must exist at the same time; where do they exist? exist at the same time in one accounting transaction;
Borrowing must be equal: This proves that they are equally weighty, and they have to borrow as much as they borrowed.
1.2 Accounting identities
What is the meaning of the accounting identity? It starts with the meaning of the existence of accounting. The accounting bookkeeping itself is the record and reflection of the business operation of the enterprise, so how to record it? It is the 6 major elements of accounting, assets, liabilities, etc.; all things to be recorded are converted to these 6 major elements and recorded using monetary units of measurement.
For enterprises, it is nothing more than doing things with money, making money with things, and earning cents. Then the left side of the equation is where the money goes, the money is used there, put it in the bank, buy raw materials and put it in the warehouse, promote and buy advertisements; the right side of the equation is where the money comes from, borrowed, invested by shareholders, and earned from business come.
So from another perspective, the accounting identity is actually a record: where does the money come from; I borrowed Zhang San 100 (the money came from Zhang San), and I deposited the money in WeChat (the money went to WeChat), how do we keep accounts "I borrowed Zhang San 100 yuan and deposited the money in WeChat." How does the accountant keep accounts?
Borrow WeChat to deposit 100 Loan and borrow money - Zhang San 100 Identity Check: Assets = Liabilities + Owner's Equity That is: WeChat deposit 100 = borrow money Zhang San 100 + owner's equity 0
1.3 Uses of Accounting Identities
We understand the use of accounting identities from 5 aspects:
Loan direction: on the left side of the equation, the debit side increases and the credit side decreases; on the right side of the equation, the debit side decreases and the credit side increases;
The identity of accounting elements: assets = liabilities + owner's equity (where the funds go = the source of funds);
Accounting account: a structured carrier for recording accounting elements, asset account, liability account, owner's equity account;
Accounting processing: It is the processing process of lending and borrowing operations on different accounts;
Direction formula: When doing accounting processing, how does the account balance and loan change? If the accounts of the accounting operation are on one side of the equation, one side increases and the other decreases; if it is on both sides of the equation, then the account increases or decreases. ; only then will the identity hold.
So when we design an account, we need to know whether the account is on the left or right side of the equation, so that we know whether the account is debited or debited when doing accounting processing.
1.4 Variations of Accounting Identities
There is also an equation that we also need to know: profit = income - expense; from the above understanding of where the money comes from, we know that profit is the source of money, so on the right side of the equation, the accounting identity becomes becomes